The Various Financing Options for Behavioral Health Services

Behavioral Health Services are some of the latest beneficiaries of reimbursement from Medicaid, which is acting under instructions from the Program Information Notice by the Health Resources and Services Administration. All nursing practitioners, physicians, physician assistants, clinical social workers and clinical psychologists, as well as Federally Qualified Health Centers that provide these services are entitled to reimbursement from Medicaid, which operates under the guidelines of the Program Information Notice, regardless of whether they the state Medicaid plan includes their services. However, these service providers must practice according to the state law in order to benefit from these guidelines.

Although the blind, disabled and aged people, who are the main beneficiaries of the Medicaid funding that is available for behavioral health services, may not have easy access to public health services that meet medical necessities by targeting populations, the Program Information Notice means a lot to them and the overall Medicaid population. This is because it varies from one state to another.

Although CHC offers behavioral health services to Medicaid populations that have lower behavioral health and higher physical health risks, the Program Information Notice is the overall financier in all states that have public health systems whose focus is on populations that have serious emotional problems and mental illnesses since it has the ability to create opportunities for other Medicaid populations. The Program Information Notice serves to assure net populations of their safety by ensuring consistencies between CHCs and HRSA initiatives, which are essential for the creation of behavioral health capacities and the reduction of disparities in the provision of health services.

Medicaid models,which are different in each state, have numerous financing implications for the Behavioral Health Services that populations with various illnesses receive since their differences make is possible for CHC, CMHC and every community partnership with them to identify business models that provide the necessary support for their integration activities by assessing their specific policy and financing environments.

The aforementioned partnerships enable the Medicaid population to access behavioral health services easily since they are largely responsible for the development of policy directions that deal directly with the access to these services without harming or excluding any populations that receive their services from the public health system.

The Program Information Notice,which has a responsibility to implement and address the structural and financial issues of the various clinical models, plays a vital role in helping to make the treatment for depression more effective especially in primary care settings hence its special link to Clinical and System Strategies.

Although some resulting papers from special issues of Administration and Policy Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research provide useful information about the various policy and financial barriers that exist in the system, the Program Information Notice provides a different integration approach. Consequently, it has proven to be more effective in patching together various sources of funding.

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The Development of Multi-Professional Occupational Health Services

During the last fifty years a need to reduce the rate of occupational accidents and diseases, and to address the economic burden that arises from workplace accidents and diseases onto the tax payer through the externalization of costs, has forced the organization of the national infrastructure to support employers to fulfill their legal obligation in health and safety at work. This was to a large extent guided by the International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions. The ILO Occupational Safety and Health Convention, No 155 (13) and its Recommendation, No 164 (14), provide for the adoption of a national occupational safety and health policy and prescribe the actions needed at the national and at the individual company levels to promote occupational safety and health and to improve the working environment. The ILO OH Services Convention, No. 161 and its Recommendation, No. 171 (33), provide for the establishment of occupational health services, which will contribute to the implementation of the occupational safety and health policy and will perform their functions at the company level.

EU legislation on the introduction of measures to encourage improvement in the safety and health of workers at work defines the employer’s responsibilities for providing all of the necessary information concerning safety and health risks, and the protective and preventive measures required, obligation for consultation with and the participation of workers in health and safety, the employer’s responsibility for providing training and health surveillance. The framework Directive also states that the employer shall enlist competent external services or persons if appropriate services cannot be organized for lack of competent personnel within the company.

Therefore, the framework Directive greatly strengthens the concept of addressing the issue of health and safety at work by using multi-professional occupational health services, and in encouraging the active participation of employers and employees in improving working conditions and environments.

The organization and scope of occupational health (OH) is constantly changing to meet new demands from industry and society, therefore the infrastructures which have been created for occupational health are also undergoing continuous improvement. OH is primarily a prevention-orientated activity, involved in risk assessment, risk management and pro-active strategies aimed at promoting the health of the working population. Therefore the range of skills needed to identify, accurately assess and devise strategies to control workplace hazards, including physical, chemical, biological or psychosocial hazards, and promote the health of the working population is enormous. No one professional group has all of the necessary skills to achieve this goal and so co-operation between professionals is required. OH is not simply about identifying and treating individuals who have become ill, it is about taking all of the steps which can be taken to prevent cases of work related ill-health occurring. In some cases the work of the occupational hygienist, engineer and safety consultant may be more effective in tackling a workplace health problem than the occupational health nurse or physician.

The multi-professional OH team can draw on a wide range of professional experience and areas of expertise when developing strategies, which are effective in protecting and promoting the health of the working population. Because ‘OH largely evolved out of what was industrial medicine there is often confusion between the terms ‘OH and ‘Occupational Medicine’. The distinction between the two has recently been clarified in the WHO publication Occupational Medicine in Europe: Scope and Competencies.

In this document it states that “Occupational medicine is a specialty of physicians; occupational health covers a broader spectrum of different health protective and promotional activities.” It is clear that the medical examination, diagnosis and treatment of occupational disease are the sole preserve of the occupational physician. It is only the physicians who have the necessary skills and clinical experience to perform this function in the being paid to the prevention of hazardous exposure and improved risk management there should be less need for extensive routine medical examinations and hopefully fewer occupational diseases to diagnose in the future. Therefore, it is likely that more occupational physicians will want to move into the broader modern field of preventative occupational health than in the past.

However, at this point, where the physician stops using the skills learnt in medical school and starts to enter the workplace to examine working conditions, there is a much greater overlap between the core areas of knowledge and competence between occupational physicians, now practicing OH, and other OH experts, such as occupational hygienists, safety engineers and an increasing number of occupational health nurses.

The occupational physicians, in their scope and competencies acknowledge that there is no longer any requirement for the physician to be automatically chosen to manage the occupational health team. The person, from whatever discipline, with the best management skills should manage the multi-professional occupational health team in order to ensure that the skills of all of the professionals are valued and fully utilized.

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The Many Community Mental Health Services Available to You

Well developed and well managed community mental health services are actually associated with low suicide rates. Hence, mental health services for the masses can be improved by focusing on the community based and specialized mental health services.

If ever you are in need of mental health services, you can contact your local affiliates of the national self help organizations or the local mental health center. Most of these agencies have the relevant information on the various services designed to meet the different needs of those who are suffering from different types of disorders such as anxiety conditions, panic disorders, schizophrenia, etc. Apart from these, they also provide information related to community mental health services designed specifically for children, refugees, HIV infected patients, the elderly, etc. Here are a list of various community health services available for your use.

Mental health act has provided a great opportunity in rendering different kinds of community care based upon individual needs. The provision of good residential accommodation for various groups of mentally disordered or patients with disorders who need constant care by the government aided agencies is a step towards enhancing the community health services.

Generally community health services treat or support people suffering with mental disorders in a domiciliary setting instead of placing them in a hospital or a psychiatric asylum. The various services offered by these community services usually differ from country to country. Most of the community services consist of psychiatric wards similar to that of a hospital. These services are mostly rendered by professionals and government organizations. According to the world health organization, community services are very easy to access by a wide range of people and are quite effective and even aid in reducing social exclusion.

When compared to private mental hospital, community services are less likely to have possibilities for the violation and neglect of human rights which are rarely encountered in few of the mental hospitals. These community services also play an important role in educating the people about the various common disorders and their corresponding symptoms. This way, people gain knowledge on various disorders and can easily recognize individuals who may be suffering from these disorders but might not really be aware of them. Aged and older people who require constant attention, can get benefited by these community services, instead of paying huge bills at private hospitals, they can get good care at the community services.

With the population in the older age group on the rise, there is need for the development of community mental health services in various localities. Also, with many specialists willing to volunteer at the community services, clients can gain a lot of benefits. Since, most of the mental health disorders occurrence do not have a clear reason behind them, the treatment usually is a long term one and for people who cannot afford highly expensive treatments and consultations, community mental health services is the best place to choose. With government pitching in to provide funds for them, it is time people think of visiting them when needed.

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Regular and Alternative Career in Health Services

Description: An alternative career in health services can be pursued in a quality institution after a lot of search. Established in 1825 the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Services has been functioning as one of the oldest teaching hospitals in the country. For building up a blooming career in health services the institute offers various avenues.

Seeking an alternative career in health services requires searching through a number of quality institutions to find out the best avenues offered in the line. Established way back in the year 1825, the George Washington University School of Medicine and health services academics was granted the use of Washington Infirmary by the Congress in 1844. Standing as one of the oldest general teaching hospitals in the country, the school is now a part of the George Washington Medical Center.

Component Institutes for medical service aspirants

With the university hospital, health science library highly experienced medical faculty associates as well as the school of public health and health services there are ample opportunities for building up the career in health services for the aspirant students.

Course Structure supporting health career

Four years semi traditional course is followed in the school helps gradual build up of health career. Introduction to clinical setting in the first two years besides teaching on basic science helps providing a platform for future improvements. The focus of building up health career would be on –

o Studies in normal human biology and function including basic medical science courses in the first year itself become a good learning ground for students.

Focus on abnormal human biology, pharmacology, pathology, microbiology, and psychopathology.

Initial studies carried on in core curriculum and thereafter the students migrating to interdisciplinary organ system.

Adequate clerkship in the major clinical disciplines as well as primary care clerkship.

Studies including compulsory “acting internship” in medicine, pediatrics or family practices courses in anesthesiology, emergency medicine, and neuroscience

Studies in urology, orthopedics, otolaryngology, pediatric surgery, as well as ophthalmology.

Carrying out a course in medical decision making including one didactic course.

Additional training is provided in affiliate institutions in United States and abroad.

Unique Programs for alternative health care career

o It grows in conjunction with mainstream health care needs.

o Energy healing, herbal medicine, acupuncture, aromatherapy, naturopathy are particular areas of alternative health care.

o Combined studies like MD-PhD and GWBS programs help build up an alternative career of the student in the field of medical science.

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Women’s Health Services, Helping You Plan Your Family

Planning a family is a hard thing to do especially if you are cautious and want to ensure that you are both physically and mentally prepared for the task ahead. If you are a responsible person who wants to know their options before taking on this life changing decision you will often find that you need more than just personal advice.

Somehow women find it easier to talk to their friends and family doctor than to seek advice elsewhere and this could indeed be limiting in some way. Perhaps it is due to the fact that they are not made aware of the many women’s health services that are provided other than just from their doctors. These are there to act as primary or secondary ports of call especially in family planning and pregnancy.

These women’s health services are more than just places to obtain information; they are also places that will provide you with personal attention and care.

Getting the Right Service

If you find yourself in dilemma of whether or not you are ready to have a family, it is understandable that you will need to seek some form of professional advice. What you need to aware of is that when you discuss this issue with your friends they will most likely fuel your personal desires and fob off your logical and practical needs. Your doctor will always aim to guide in the direction that would most likely be beneficial, but even that might not be sufficient.

The help that you can get from women’s health services is the right kind of help, especially when you have such a dramatic decision to make. You will not only find health service but also psychological help through talking to a counsellor.

There are many things you will need to consider of you want to start your family so that you actually enjoy the experience. With women’s health services you can get your health questions answered. These might be about the whether or not you should start a certain diet before the pregnancy, or how much does having a baby effect your relationship or marriage.

There is nothing wrong with being prepared. By using these women’s health services you will ensure that your fears are put to rest. And in time you can be able to make a more informed decision as you will have already gotten the support that you need from using your local women’s health center.

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The Way Wind Tunnels Work and the Way They Are Used

We can feel the presence of the wind and airflow. Wind has to be measured to make sure there is proper ventilation in homes, offices and factories. Airflow should also be measured to see to it that buildings are safe (from harsh winds/hurricanes) and laboratories where people work with volatile chemicals are protected as well. Wind tunnels can be used to build and calibrate wind gauges that measure wind flow. These can also be used to know more about the aerodynamics of cars, trains and airplanes.

The Way They Work

Wind tunnels have a simple structure. They are long tubes placed within glass, metal, plastic or at times, an entire building. They consist of a high-powered fan on each end of the tube. One fan blows wind on the object while the other moves air out of the tunnel. In this way, there is no return flow to damage the data that is being collected. They can be small in size like a coffee table or large like a warehouse. Usually, they have many, different settings for testing objects or recalibrating wind gauges in various wind speeds. Therefore, the object/wind gauge will not get damaged as it works while the wind gauge will be capable of measuring the wind indoors or outdoors with precision and accuracy.

The Way Wind Tunnels Are Used

Wind tunnels are used in testing and recalibrating wind gauges that measure the force of wind outdoors, factories and ductwork of plants and offices. This helps prevent the ductwork from malfunctioning or being over pressurized from the air that moves through it. It also offers proper ventilation to offices and plants. Factories, plants and offices have to be properly ventilated to make sure of the employees’ respiratory health and in some cases, protect employees and products from harmful chemicals that penetrate the air. A lot of essential oil manufacturers come with elaborate ventilation systems that must do their best to prevent employees from becoming sick or injured.

Wind tunnels can also be used in measuring the aerodynamics of some objects and systems. Most cars and planes are put inside these structures before they are manufactured in volume. This is a way to test whether they are aerodynamic and will operate safely on the ground or air. The same is true for a lot of airplane engines. Most companies like Boeing and NASA make use of massive wind tunnels(as large as an entire building) in testing their airplanes as well as airplane engines. This is critical to guarantee the plane’s safety and efficiency.

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